DIPLOMATIC missions in 110 places, Nato membership and close cooperation with Norway and Canada – this is how an independent Scotland should handle foreign policy, a new report claims.

The Global Blueprint document also says a newly sovereign state should not join the Commonwealth, must have representatives across the United States and institute a new Scotland-United Kingdom Council to encourage bilateral cooperation between Edinburgh, London, Cardiff and Belfast.

And it recommends that Scotland's ministry of foreign affairs should be called the Department of European and External Relations, to reflect its commitment to the European Union.

Author Anthony Salmone, of political analysis firm European Merchants, says the 40,000-word paper – based on the premise that the country will rejoin the European Union – is broader and deeper than anything that's come before.

He said: "Foreign policy is a major part of being an independent state. We must be honest, Scotland's public debate on the EU and on foreign policy is currently circular, shallow and insufficient.

"Scotland's Global Blueprint sets out a full prospectus for Scotland's foreign policy institutions, were independence to take place. It takes the conversation to a new level of detail.

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"As a European small state, Scotland's path to a successful global role would rest in being a wholehearted member of the EU, a supporter of the United Nations and an advocate for multilateralism.

"While it would take significant dedication and innovation, Scotland could develop an influential position in the EU and in the world over time.

"Scotland's constitutional debate is only going to intensify in the months ahead. This report is a call for a more serious discussion on foreign policy and independence."

The report recommends the development of a "values-based" foreign policy founded on support for the United Nations, multilateralism, international law and the rules-based global system.

While bilateral relationships with "fellow EU members" would be key, the report claims, Scotland should also seek a "strategic partnership" with the US, setting up an embassy and seven consulates general there.

"Cordial relations" would be needed with China, it states, along with a "constructive" relationship with the United Kingdom of England and Wales and Northern Ireland.

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Under the plan, the country would "work closely on international issues" with nations like Canada and Norway, with which it would share "common ground".

The embassy network would go from Algeria and Argentina to Vietnam and Zambia, with a team of around 25 in place at a major site like the one proposed for Germany.

The report states: "Scotland should create a team of Counsellors of State, high-ranking advisers and envoys, to represent Scotland globally on major topics, including national security, multilateralism, democracy and human rights, and climate change.

"Scotland should join Nato to ensure the defence and security of itself and its allies.

"Scotland should not join the Commonwealth and instead engage with its members through more progressive institutions, including the United Nations.

"Scotland should establish the Scottish Global Cooperation Agency for international development, the Scottish Trade Council for trade and investment, and the Passport Authority of Scotland for passports.

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"Scotland, Ireland and the United Kingdom should found the Common Islands Council to replace the British-Irish Council and serve as a three-way forum. Scotland's foreign policy should be based on a cross-party Foundation Strategy for the first decade of independence."