Downing Street has rejected calls from MEPs for Britain to stay permanently aligned to Brussels's employment, environmental and competition laws as the price of a trade deal.

The European Parliament adopted a resolution setting out MEPs' views on the forthcoming negotiations on a post-Brexit trade deal, which called for "dynamic alignment" of UK and EU rules.

That would mean that whenever Brussels changed laws, the UK would be expected to follow – something that is deemed unacceptable to Boris Johnson's Government.

In a text adopted by 543 votes to 39, MEPs in Strasbourg agreed that given the size of the UK's economy and its proximity, future competition with the EU must be kept open and fair through a "level playing field".

That would mean guarantees for equal rules on social, environmental, tax, state aid, consumer protection and climate matters.

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The resolution adopted by MEPs is based on the European Commission's draft negotiating directives, which were set out by Brussels's chief negotiator Michel Barnier.

In response to the European Parliament vote, the Prime Minister's official spokesman said: "The British people voted to be independent with control over our rules and laws, and so we will not accept alignment to EU rules in any way.

"Having autonomy over our rules and laws is exactly the same principle that the EU have set out in their mandate.

"In fact they have said the parties should ensure that the parties retain their autonomy and the ability to regulate economic activity.

"That is exactly what we are doing and asking."

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The Political Declaration agreed by the UK and EU "set out our commitment to discuss open and fair competition as part of negotiations on our future relationship", the spokesman said.

"We want a relationship with the EU which is based on friendly co-operation between sovereign equals and centred on free trade.

"We are not asking for a special, bespoke or unique deal but one like the EU has previously struck with other friendly countries like Canada."

Negotiations can only officially begin once the 27 EU states have endorsed the negotiating objectives drawn up by Barnier – something not expected to happen until February 25.

In a sign of Downing Street's frustration at the process, the PM's spokesman said: "We are ready to start talking as soon as they are and have been ready to start talking since February 1."